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:: Volume 20, Issue 71 (11-2020) ::
جغرافیایی 2020, 20(71): 49-74 Back to browse issues page
Identification of the Karsticity of the Kalat Mountain Basin in the North East of Iran
Mohsen Rezaei arefi *1, Mohammad ali Zanganeh asadi, Aboalfazl Behniyafar, Mohammad Javanbakht
Abstract:   (315 Views)
Extended abstract
Identification of the Karsticity of the Kalat Mountain Basin in the North East of Iran
Introduction
Karst is a geomorphic and hydrological system formed by dissolved gems such as limestone, dolomite and gypsum (Oziert et al., 2014).In this study, considering the foreign and domestic studies, and considering the role of Paleoclima and the high difference of the ancient climate of this region with present-day climate in the degree of karst karsticity in the region, the degree of karstification of the basin with field, experimental and The hierarchical analysis model was developed.The study area is Kalat Mountain basin in Kopeh Dagh zone, located in the highlands of the thousand mosques and northeastern parts of the country. This basin has an area of 168.37 km2 located 145 km north of Mashhad and in Khorasan Razavi province.
Matherials and Methods
 
Techniques used in this research include field, empirical, and hierarchical techniques .
1. techniques field
A. Classification of Karstic forms of basin based on the method of Cvijic
B) Division of karstic forms based on Waltham and Fox methods
C) Evidence of Karst geomorphology of Kalat mountain basin
 
2) Experimental formulas of karst
A) Corbel equation
X=4ET/100
B)The switching equation
                                                              X=FQTN/( 
3) Laboratory techniques to investigate the dissolution of basin karst
 
A. Measurement of lime in sediment by calcicometric (volumetric) method with Bernard calcium
 

B) ICP method (analytical inductive coupled plasma)
C) Weighting method
4) Analytical Hierarchy Model
 
Results and Discussion
 
To identify the degree of karstification of the basin with field evidence, empirical and hierarchical analysis model, the following are cited separately:
1. You want to know:  Field evidence includes Cvijic methods, Waltham, and geomorphologic evidence. The following is a summary of the field evidence:
Based on this categorization, the Kalat basin karsts are placed in the row of transition karsts. Because in this basin, the dimensions of the caves are small and not very large. Poles, also known as karst areas, are not formed in this basin, and because of their slopes and inappropriate topography they are not likely to be formed in the future. Devils do not have much to gain in the basin. Other forms of karstis also have not evolved.
 
According to this division, basin karsts are placed on the young karst ranks
In the studied basin, the diversity of landforms is low due to field visits to the basin, and it lacks any cave deposits, and the cave does not really exist in it, and the karst hydrogeology is not much developed. These reasons make the study of the studied basin more youthful to semi-evolutionary.
2) Experimental formulas of karst
A) Result of Corbel equation
According to calculations, the number is obtained  23.66 mm per thousand years
B) Result of The switching equation
According to calculations, the number is obtained  12.92 mm per thousand years .
3) Result of Laboratory techniques to investigate the dissolution of basin karst
A. Result of  Measurement of lime in sediment by calcicometric (volumetric) method with Bernard calcium . According to calculations, the number is obtained  36.3
B) Result of ICP method (analytical inductive coupled plasma):
 
In order to perform the experiment, four rock samples were taken from four important limestone formations of the basin of the ICP technique and analyzed in the laboratory and the results are as follows:
Table 4: Calcium (Ca) element content in Kalat Mountain basin divided by four formations per%
Type of formation Calcium content in%
Tirgan 38.90
Mozduran 2 38.34
Sarcheshmeh 38.41
Shurijeh .7
C) Result of Weighting method
According to this experiment, 4 samples of Tirgan, Mozduran 2, Kalat and Sarcheshmeh showed 4/3% of the total amount of lime in the sedimentology laboratory.
 
4) Result of Analytical Hierarchy Model
The basis of this model is the comparison of the parameters of the parameters and ultimately the zoning of the karstic transformation. Considering the role of the various factors and the development of the karsts of the region in the past, and considering the different paleoclima of the past region with the current situation and the role of the various factors in the development of eight layer karst Information was selected. Based on field studies and the opinion of experts and consultants in the doctorchr('39')s thesis, the lithology factor was chosen as an important parameter in the development of the karst. After that, the distance from the fault was selected considering its important role in the development of the gap and gap. The climate and then the elevation are factors that have been selected as the important and influential factor on rainfall, evapotranspiration and temperature in this study. Subsequently, layers, slope, distance from the waterway were selected for slope and land use. Different layers of information have been categorized into standard layout and field visits by applying expert judgment and assigning weight to each stratum. 

Keywords: Degree of karsticity, Kalat mountain basin, geomorphologic and empirical evidence, hierarchical analysis
Full-Text [PDF 1857 kb]   (98 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2019/01/19 | Accepted: 2019/05/1 | Published: 2020/11/30
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rezaei arefi M, zanganeh asadi M A, behniyafar A, javanbakht M. Identification of the Karsticity of the Kalat Mountain Basin in the North East of Iran. جغرافیایی. 2020; 20 (71) :49-74
URL: http://geographical-space.iau-ahar.ac.ir/article-1-3408-en.html


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