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جغرافیایی 2021, 21(73): 35-54 Back to browse issues page
Analyzing the factors of land use change in rural area by using of Grounded theory (case study: rural of Shandiz district)
Tahereh Sadeghloo *1, Zeinab Erfani1
1- Ferdowsi university of mashhad
Abstract:   (398 Views)
Objectives
Nowadays, Considering to the role and value of land in development and space management process, observation and analysis of the causes and consequences of land use changes in rural areas, especially areas that are in high tensions with urban areas, is of paramount importance. Land use changes, for any reason, could be effective in the organizing of physical and socio-economic impacts in rural spaces. Today, using and organization of land is one of the most important principles of spatial planning, because realization of various aspects of physical compliance standards such as accessibility, proximity, the safety and space efficacy depends on proper management of land. On the other side, land use and ways of using it in public, has always been the source of conflicts and social problems and conflicts between public resources and legal rights and how to exploit it. But the land and the loss of land and construction in rural areas is a main topic that nowadays, considering to development and growth of the population and changing the currents and interaction of urban and rural areas, is highly regarded. Shandiz rural district as a part of Binalodd Township had been experimented increasing land use changes in recent years and this study tried to analyzing the reasons and result of these changes.
 
Methodology
Shandiz district is located at a distance of 15 kilometers from the northwest side of Mashhad, and its total population contain 30981 persons, with a rural population of 20553 people. It has 27 rural areas that 7 villages (Sarasiab, Hessar Sorkh, Veirani, Abardeh Olya, Zoshk, Chah Khaseh, and Archang) with the most changes in land uses are chosen as case study area according to the formal data given by the Housing Foundation and the data is collected accordingly. The present study aims at achieving a clear picture of the effects of land use changes of Shandiz district on a conceptual basis. To achieve this, grounded theory approach is used. The grounded approach is among qualitative methods of research which is used for investigating social processes in human interactions. In this method, data collection, analysis and final theory have close relationship with each other and the author does not begin the work with the theory he/she has in his/her mind, but starts the work in the reality domain and lets it emerge through the data he/she collects.
 
Discussion
Since the conceptual model of theoretical fundamentals has three main parts, that is, (a) causes and contributing factors; (b) process and changes; and (c) results and consequences, the questions and investigations are organized in such a way that this process is realized and the three structural components are implemented in some way.
Step 1: Causes and Factors Affecting Changes in Land Uses
In Step 1, to explain and draw theoretical and fundamental model, some questions were posed concerning the causes of changes in land uses and the villagers' tendency to such changes. As can be seen by the results of total percentages of each dimension, the most frequency of the causes and factors affecting such changes in land uses relates to social and legal dimension with a frequency of 38.5% and then, relates to economic causes with a frequency of 29.93%. Environmental and institutional-regulatory causes rank second in terms of importance.
Step 2: Types of Changes in Land Uses and the Process Required for Such Purpose
In the next section, one makes investigation into the most common types of changes in land uses among the villages of the study area. Accordingly, in most of the villages of the study area, the most common type of such change was from farmlands and orchards to residential lands and/or lands used for tourism services. Investigation into the changes in land uses and its most common types are in fact indicative of this important point that these changes can be explained in two internal and external types. In internal changes, most of the agricultural activities change from one type into another one, that, which protection of natural resources and the view of the land and village, no residential building or industrial products have been erected or manufactured which disturb the arrangement and layout.
Step 3: Effects and Consequences of Change in Land Uses
Given the results obtained, the most important consequences of change in land use in villages can first be attributed to the environment of the village and imbalance between environmental cycles of these areas so that this dimension with a cumulative frequency of 48.5% is higher than economic effects (27.28%) and social effects (24.28%). This result may be a warning for environmental crises in rural areas and, consequently, increasing relations between city and village because most of these effects are resulted from the role a village plays as a service provider to urban tourists on a direct basis.
Result
According to the results from the study, the most important causes and factors affecting change in land use in the study area can be social-legal, economic, environmental, regulatory and institutional ones. Accordingly, failure to organize and properly supervise the price of land, decreased support of agriculture, and the problems due to market and profitability of this activity can be such causes and factors which may lead to such changes in favor of industrial constructions and/or decrease such environmental potentials as green and agricultural lands in rural areas. Accordingly, in the 1st dimension, it is recommended that in order to reduce these changes, some support policies are made by the authorities concerned in the field of agricultural production as well as some regulatory laws are strictly enforced in rural areas. Given the fact that the most changes are made for the purpose of increased human constructions and environmental degradation, with development of interactions between villages and cities in these areas, degradations due to the presence of tourists and villa construction will lead to many economic and social changes such as ecosystem imbalance, native population's leaving the villages and immigration to cities, and decreased agricultural productions during a long time.
Keywords: land use changes, rural development, grounded theory, Shandiz dehestan, physical changes.
Full-Text [PDF 1134 kb]   (110 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2017/09/19 | Accepted: 2018/10/8 | Published: 2021/05/31
References
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33. Afrakhteh, H., Marzban panah, P., (2008), "Introduction to rural settlements planning", Parham pub: Tehran. [In Persian].
34. Akalagan, J. R., (2007), "land use: interactions between economy, ecology and hydrology", Translated by: Manucherhr Tabibian, Tehran University Press: Tehran. [In Persian].
35. Akbari, S., Abdollahi, M., (2009), "series of rural and edhyaries laws and regulations", Ghalamestan honar pub: Tehran. [In Persian].
36. Amar, T., (2013), "Tourism development pathology in Gilan Province rural settlement", Journal of space Economics and Rural Development, 1: 171-192. [In Persian].
37. Amir Nejad, H., (2014), "Analyzing the effective factors on farmer's trend to changing the land use in Mazandaran province", Agricultural Economics Research, 5 (4): 87-106. [In Persian].
38. Anderson, K., Gibson, C. C., (2006), "Decentralized governance and environmental change: Local institutional moderation of deforestation in Bolivia", Journal of Policy, Analysis, Manage, 26: 99-123. [DOI:10.1002/pam.20229]
39. Beria Solis, H., (2010), "Analytical patterns of land use changes; the theoretical approach and modeling", Translator, Mojtaba Rafieian and Mehran Mahmoudi, pub: Tehran. [In Persian].
40. Braymvh, A., Wellek, P. J. L., (2011), "land use and soil", translated by Majid karimpour Khayyam, Mohamad Jafari, Reza Khalil Arjmandi, Tayebeh Mesbahzadeh, & Mohamad Kia Kianian, Pub: Tehran University press. [In Persian].
41. Brown, D., Johnson, K. M., Loveland, T, R., Theobald, D. M., (2005), "Rural land-use trends in the conterminous united states, 1950-2000", Journal of Ecological Applications, 15 (6): 1851-1863. [DOI:10.1890/03-5220]
42. Ghadami, M., Aligholi Zadeh Firuz Jahy, N., Badry, R., Moradinejad, A., (2010), "Examines the role of tourism in the destination land use changes (case study: the central district of Noshahr township)", Journal of Regional -urban studies and research, 1 (3): 21-42. [In Persian].
43. Ghaffari, R., (2015), "The rural guide plans and land use changes) Case Study area: Chamrood Rural District, lenjan township of Isfahan)", International Journal of Geographic, Geography Society, 45:135-156. [In Persian].
44. Hadiani, M. O., (2008), "The role of land use changes on regional flood debies (case study: Madarsu watershed areas)", Journal of environmental studies, 33 (42): 9-16. [In Persian].
45. Hassani mehr, S. S., Shahvar, H., (2011), "The consequences of tourism development in the rural district of Heiran with emphasis on land use change (2006-1996)", Journal of Human Geography, 3 (I): 177-192. [In Persian].
46. Karami dehkordi, M., Kalantari, Kh., (2011), "Identification of rural tourism problem in Chaharmahal Bakhtiari province, using of grounded theory technique", Journal of Rural Research, 1 (3): 1-30. [In Persian].
47. Kroll, F., Feliz, M., Bell, S., Haase, D., Helminen, V., Kabisch, N., Zach, H., (2013), "Rural land use change in Canterbury: 1995-2012", Environment Canterbury Technical Report, Environment Canterbury regional council.
48. Long, H., Heilig, G. K., Ming Zhang, X. L., (2007), "Socio-economic development and land-use change: Analysis of rural housing land transition in the Transect of the Yangtze River, China", Land Use Policy 24: 141-153. [DOI:10.1016/j.landusepol.2005.11.003]
49. Mehrabi, A. A, Muhammadi, M., Mohseni Saroyan Yaravi, M., Jafari, M., Ghorbani, M., (2013), "Investigation of the human driving forces affecting land use change (Case study: Seyed Mohaleh and Drasara villages-Tonekabon city)", Journal of range and watershed management, 66 (2): 307-320. [In Persian].
50. Moshiri, S. R., Qomash Pasand, MT., (2013), "Analysis of the effects of agricultural land use change consequences in the central district of Lahijan township along last decade", perspective of human geography studies, 7 (11):1-13. [In Persian].
51. Motiee Langeroodi. S. H., Rezvani, M. R., Kateb Azgomi. Z., (2012), "Economic effects of agricultural land use change on rural area (Dehestan of Licharaki Hasan-rood, Bandar Anzali)", Journal of Research and Rural Planning, 1: 1-23. [In Persian].
52. Muhammadi, M., Mehrabi, A., Ghorbani, M., Khorasani, M. A., (2013), "Human resources affecting on land use changes in marginal rural areas (Case study area: Alke and See bon villages of Tonecabon township)", Journal of Geography (Geographic Society), 10 (35): 279 -298. [In Persian].
53. Nohegar, A., Kazemi, M., Ghasr Dashti roshan, M., Razai, P., (2012), "Survey of the effects of land use variation on flooding potential in Tang-e-Bostanak watershed", Journal of Environmental Erosion Research, 2: 28-41. [In Persian].
54. Popzan, A., Ghobadi, P., Zarafshan, K., (2010), "Rural tourism problems and constraints by using of grounded theory (case study: Harir village in Kermanshah Province)", Journal of Rural Studies, I (3): 25-52. [In Persian].
55. Scandari, S., Moradi, A., (2012), "Investigation of land use and the analysis of landscape elements in Sivar village from environmental viewpoint", Journal of Environmental Studies, 38 (62): 35-44. [In Persian].
56. Shakuie, H., (2001), "New perspective in urban geography", SAMT press: Tehran. [In Persian].
57. Shayan H., Modoodi, M., (2012), "The effective functional changes on repopulation (The case study: Shandiz district of Mashhad)", Journal of Human Geography Research, 79: 173-190. [In Persian].
58. Straus, A., Corbin, J., (2008), "Basics of Qualitatvie Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory", Los Angeles: Sage Publications. [DOI:10.4135/9781452230153]
59. Strauss, A., carbyne, J., (2011), "Basics of qualitative research techniques and manufacturing processes underlying theory", Translated by Ebrahim Afshar, Reed Pub: Tehran. [In Persian].
60. Wu, J. J., (2008), "Land use changes: Economic, social, and environmental impacts, choice", The magazine of food, farm, and resource issues, 23 (4): 6-10.
61. Zia Tavana, M. H., Amir Entkhabi, Sh., (2008), "The conversion trend of villages to the city and its consequences in the Talesh township", Journal of geography and development, 10: 107-128. [In Persian].
62. Ziyaree, K., Hosseini, S. A., Hosseini, S. M., Minaee, M., (2010), "paradigm shift in the concept of land-use planning", Journal of human science Spatial Planning, 14 (2): 43-61. [In Persian].
63. Rezaei, R., Qodusi J., Hasani A., Arjmandi R., Vafaeinejad A., (2021), "Classification and Assessment of the land use changes using Landsat satellite imagery (Case study: Qazvin plan's Aquifer)", Journal of Geographical Space, 20 (72): 185-204. [In Persian].
64. Rezaei Moghadam, M. H., Andaryani, S., Valizadeh Kamran, K., Almaspor, F., (2016), "Determine the best algorithm for land use and land cover extraction and changes detecting from Landsat satellite images (Case study: Sufi chay basin of Maragheh)", Journal of Geographical Space, 16 (55): 65-85. [In Persian].
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sadeghloo T, erfani Z. Analyzing the factors of land use change in rural area by using of Grounded theory (case study: rural of Shandiz district). جغرافیایی. 2021; 21 (73) :35-54
URL: http://geographical-space.iau-ahar.ac.ir/article-1-3037-en.html


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