[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 20, Issue 71 (11-2020) ::
جغرافیایی 2020, 20(71): 49-74 Back to browse issues page
Identification of the Karsticity of the Kalat Mountain Basin in the North East of Iran
Mohsen Rezaei arefi *1, Mohammad ali Zanganeh asadi, Aboalfazl Behniyafar, Mohammad Javanbakht
Abstract:   (1686 Views)
Extended abstract
Identification of the Karsticity of the Kalat Mountain Basin in the North East of Iran
Karst is a geomorphic and hydrological system formed by dissolved gems such as limestone, dolomite and gypsum (Oziert et al., 2014).In this study, considering the foreign and domestic studies, and considering the role of Paleoclima and the high difference of the ancient climate of this region with present-day climate in the degree of karst karsticity in the region, the degree of karstification of the basin with field, experimental and The hierarchical analysis model was developed.The study area is Kalat Mountain basin in Kopeh Dagh zone, located in the highlands of the thousand mosques and northeastern parts of the country. This basin has an area of 168.37 km2 located 145 km north of Mashhad and in Khorasan Razavi province.
Matherials and Methods
Techniques used in this research include field, empirical, and hierarchical techniques .
1. techniques field
A. Classification of Karstic forms of basin based on the method of Cvijic
B) Division of karstic forms based on Waltham and Fox methods
C) Evidence of Karst geomorphology of Kalat mountain basin
2) Experimental formulas of karst
A) Corbel equation
B)The switching equation
3) Laboratory techniques to investigate the dissolution of basin karst
A. Measurement of lime in sediment by calcicometric (volumetric) method with Bernard calcium

B) ICP method (analytical inductive coupled plasma)
C) Weighting method
4) Analytical Hierarchy Model
Results and Discussion
To identify the degree of karstification of the basin with field evidence, empirical and hierarchical analysis model, the following are cited separately:
1. You want to know:  Field evidence includes Cvijic methods, Waltham, and geomorphologic evidence. The following is a summary of the field evidence:
Based on this categorization, the Kalat basin karsts are placed in the row of transition karsts. Because in this basin, the dimensions of the caves are small and not very large. Poles, also known as karst areas, are not formed in this basin, and because of their slopes and inappropriate topography they are not likely to be formed in the future. Devils do not have much to gain in the basin. Other forms of karstis also have not evolved.
According to this division, basin karsts are placed on the young karst ranks
In the studied basin, the diversity of landforms is low due to field visits to the basin, and it lacks any cave deposits, and the cave does not really exist in it, and the karst hydrogeology is not much developed. These reasons make the study of the studied basin more youthful to semi-evolutionary.
2) Experimental formulas of karst
A) Result of Corbel equation
According to calculations, the number is obtained  23.66 mm per thousand years
B) Result of The switching equation
According to calculations, the number is obtained  12.92 mm per thousand years .
3) Result of Laboratory techniques to investigate the dissolution of basin karst
A. Result of  Measurement of lime in sediment by calcicometric (volumetric) method with Bernard calcium . According to calculations, the number is obtained  36.3
B) Result of ICP method (analytical inductive coupled plasma):
In order to perform the experiment, four rock samples were taken from four important limestone formations of the basin of the ICP technique and analyzed in the laboratory and the results are as follows:
Table 4: Calcium (Ca) element content in Kalat Mountain basin divided by four formations per%
Type of formation Calcium content in%
Tirgan 38.90
Mozduran 2 38.34
Sarcheshmeh 38.41
Shurijeh .7
C) Result of Weighting method
According to this experiment, 4 samples of Tirgan, Mozduran 2, Kalat and Sarcheshmeh showed 4/3% of the total amount of lime in the sedimentology laboratory.
4) Result of Analytical Hierarchy Model
The basis of this model is the comparison of the parameters of the parameters and ultimately the zoning of the karstic transformation. Considering the role of the various factors and the development of the karsts of the region in the past, and considering the different paleoclima of the past region with the current situation and the role of the various factors in the development of eight layer karst Information was selected. Based on field studies and the opinion of experts and consultants in the doctor's thesis, the lithology factor was chosen as an important parameter in the development of the karst. After that, the distance from the fault was selected considering its important role in the development of the gap and gap. The climate and then the elevation are factors that have been selected as the important and influential factor on rainfall, evapotranspiration and temperature in this study. Subsequently, layers, slope, distance from the waterway were selected for slope and land use. Different layers of information have been categorized into standard layout and field visits by applying expert judgment and assigning weight to each stratum. 

Keywords: Degree of karsticity, Kalat mountain basin, geomorphologic and empirical evidence, hierarchical analysis
Full-Text [PDF 1857 kb]   (334 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2019/01/19 | Accepted: 2019/05/1 | Published: 2020/11/30
1. Alizadeh, A., (2010), "Principles of applied hydrology", Imam Reza University Press, Siam Press: Mashhad. [In Persian].
2. Bogli, A., (2009), "Karst hydrology and physical speleology", Springer-Verlag: Berlin.
3. Behniyafar, A., Qanbarzadeh, H., Farzaneh, A., (2009), "Geomorphic features of Akhlamad karst massif in the northern slopes of Binalood heights, Zahedan", Journal of Geography and Development, 14: 140-121. [In Persian].
4. Behniyafar, A., Qanbarzadeh, H., (2016), "Karst Geomorphology", Mashhad: Negaran Sabz Publications. [In Persian].
5. Bagheri Seyed Shokri, S., Yamani, M., Jafar Biglou, M., Karimi, H., Moghimi, E., (2015), "Investigation of development and hydrodynamic properties of karst systems using hydrograph landing curve analysis in karst aquifers of Alvand river basin", Journal of Natural Geography Research, 47 )33(: 46-333. [In Persian].
6. Bahrami, S., Zanganeh Asadi, M. A., Jahanfar, A., (2015), "Evaluation of karst development using hydrodynamic and hydrogeochemical properties of karst springs in Zagros (Study area: Qalajeh anticline and Prav Biston massif)", Journal of Geography and Development, 3: 74-61. [In Persian].
7. Calic, J., (2011), "Karstic uvula revisited: Toward a redefinition of the term", Geomorphology, 134 (1): 32-42. [DOI:10.1016/j.geomorph.2011.06.029]
8. Cvijic, J., (1925), "Type's morphologiques des terrains calcaires. Comptes Rendus", Académie des Sciences, 180: 592-594. [In France].
9. Chenini, I., Ben, M. A., (2010), "Groundwater recharge study in arid region: An approach using GIS techniques and numerical modeling", Computers & Geosciences , 36: 801-817. [DOI:10.1016/j.cageo.2009.06.014]
10. Ford, D., Williams, P. D., (2007), "Karst hydrogeology and geomorphology", West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons. [DOI:10.1002/9781118684986]
11. Ghobadi, M. H., (2009), "Karst engineering geology", Bu Ali Sina University Press, :Hamadan. [In Persian].
12. Ghobadi, M. H., Behzadatbar, P., (2015), "Evaluation of karst development based on lithological, morphological and structural features in Bidsorkh region, east of Sahneh, east of Kermanshah province", Journal of New Finds of Applied Geology, 20 : 91-76. [In Persian].
13. Hung, L. Q., Dimr, N. Q., Tam, V. T., Lagrou, D., (2002), "Remote sensing & GIS based analysis of cave development in the Suoimuoi catchment (Son La- NW Vietnam)", Journal of cave & Karst, 12: 81-90.
14. Khanlari, Gh., Mo'meni, A., (2012), "Geomorphology, hydrogeology and the study of factors affecting karst development in the Green region, western Iran", Geography and Regional Urban Planning, 3: 74-61. [In Persian].
15. Khezri, S., Shahabi, H., Mohammadi, S., (2017), "Evaluation and zoning of karst evolution of Saholan cave in Mahabad cave using hierarchical analysis method", Journal of Quantitative Geomorphological Research, 1: 21-29. [In Persian].
16. Lamoreaux, P. E., ( 2007), "Karst: the foundation for concepts in hydrogeology", Bull.Eng. Geol. Environ. Studies, 64 (1): 23-33.
17. Mishra, R. C., Biju, C., Naik, R. D., ( 2010), "Remote sensing and GIS for groundwater mapping and identification of artificial recharge sites, Geo-environmental engineering and geotechnics: progress in modeling and applications", Proceedings of sessions of geoshanghai China, China, GeoShanghai International Conference, 216-223. [DOI:10.1061/41105(378)30]
18. Mahmoudi, F., (2006), "Structural geomorphology", Eighth Edition",Tehran: Payame Noor Publications. [In Persian].
19. Moghimi, A., Mahmoudi, F., (2004), "Research method in matural geography", Qoms Publications: Tehran. [In Persian].
20. Milanovic, P. J., (1981), "Karst hydrogeology", colorado, CO: Water Resources ublications.
21. Mazidi, A., Karam, A., Koravand, M., (2016), "Karst development potential using fuzzy logic (Case study: susan plain and lzeh plain basin)", Journal of Quantitative Geomorphology, 5 P(2):141-130.[In Persian].
22. Moradi, S., Rezaei, M., Parhamat, J., (2010), "Investigating the effect of different factors on karst development of Zagros karst zones", 29th Earth Sciences Conference, 11-12 February 2010, Tehran, Iran. [In Persian].
23. Ozyurt, N. N., Lutz, H. O., Hunjak, T., Mance, D. Roller-Lutz, Z., ( 2014), "Characterization of the Gacka river basin karst aquifer (Croatia): Hydrochemistry, stable isotopes and tritium-based mean residence times", Science of The Total Environment, 487: 245-254. [DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.04.018]
24. Palmer, A. N., (2007), "Cave geology, Cave Books", Dayton: London. P 454.
25. Qurbani, M. S., Onaq, M., (2011), "Karst evolution and sensitivity zoning using multivariate linear regression model in Shahu karst region", Journal of Quantitative Geomorphology Research, 1: 19-32. [In Persian].
26. Qara Khani, M., Vaezi, A., Bahramian, I., (2013), "Study of karst development and karst caves in East Azarbaijan province", gathering and the first international specialized congress of earth, sciences, Mashhad, Iran. [In Persian].
27. Rao, P. J., Harikrishna, P., Srivastav, S. K., Satyanarayana, P. V. V, Rao, B. V. D ., (2009), "Selection of groundwater potential zones in around Madhurawada dome Visakhapatnam district:A GIS approach", Jurnal Ind Geophys :union:, 13 (4): 191-200.
28. Saaty, T. L., (1980), "The analytic hierarchy process, Mcgraw-Hill, Inc", Reprinted By RWS Pub: Pittsburgh. [DOI:10.21236/ADA214804]
29. Sepand, S., Chitsazan, M., Rangzan, K., Mirzaei, Y., (2007), "Integration of remote sensing and GIS in potential detection of groundwater resources in Lali area", Third Geomatics Conference, 4 February 2017, Tehran, Iran. [In Persian].
30. Waltham, A. C., Fookes, P. G., (2003), "Engineering classification of karst ground conditions", Quaterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 36: 101-18. [DOI:10.1144/1470-9236/2002-33]
31. Yamani, M., (2015), "Practical guide to field and laboratory techniques", Tehran: University of Tehran. [In Persian].
32. Yamani, M., Shamsipour, A., Jafari Aqdam, M., Bagheri Seyed Lashkari, S., (2013), "Investigating the effective factors in the development and zoning of Chele basin karst using fuzzy logic and hierarchical analysis, Kermanshah province", Journal of Earth Sciences, 22: 66-57. [In Persian[.
33. White, W. B., (1988), "Geomorphology and hydrology of karst terrains", Oxford: Oxford University press.
34. Zeng, S., Jiang, Y., Liu, Z., ( 2016), "Assessment of climate impacts on the karstrelated carbon sink in SW China using MPD and GIS", Global and Planetary Change, 144: 171-181. [DOI:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2016.07.015]
35. Zanganeh Asadi, M. A., Shafiee, N., Kolivand, T., (2017), "Evaluation of karst erosion in Fahlian limestone basin of Fars", Fifth National Conference of Iranian Geomorphological Association, Iranian Geomorphological Association, Tehran, Knowledge Reference Publications, p 217. [In Persian].
36. Zroush, N., Vaezi, A., Karimi, H., (2014), "Evaluation of karst development potential in Kabir mountain anticlineIlam using fuzzy integration and AHP analysis method and remote sensing and GIS", Journal of ResearchQuantitative Geomorphology, 3 )3(: 144-157. [In Persian].
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

rezaei arefi M, zanganeh asadi M A, behniyafar A, javanbakht M. Identification of the Karsticity of the Kalat Mountain Basin in the North East of Iran. جغرافیایی. 2020; 20 (71) :49-74
URL: http://geographical-space.iau-ahar.ac.ir/article-1-3408-en.html

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 20, Issue 71 (11-2020) Back to browse issues page
فضای جغرافیایی Geographic Space
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.18 seconds with 30 queries by YEKTAWEB 4461