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:: Volume 22, Issue 79 (12-2022) ::
جغرافیایی 2022, 22(79): 43-65 Back to browse issues page
Investigation of the Consequences of Rural Tourism Development in Osko County (Case study: Aq Gonbad Village)
Mohammad Shokati Amghani *1, Javad Ghasemi2, Moslem Savari3, Alireza Rahimi4
1- Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2- Agricultural Education and Extension Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Tehran, Iran
3- Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Khuzestan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Mulathani, Iran.
4- Doctoral student of agricultural development, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.
Abstract:   (1391 Views)
Introduction
Rural tourism is one of the most important and growing types of the tourism sector, which includes various activities, relying on natural and cultural resources and human-centered orientation. In recent decades, due to the recession in the industrial and agricultural sectors and the living problems of the society, development policymakers have always emphasized the importance of the development of the tourism industry as a strategy to help economic prosperity due to the currency appreciation of the tourism industry. Rural tourism has not been an exception to this rule. In Iran, the issue of rural tourism as one of the sub-branches of the tourism sector has been considered by development thinkers in various scientific branches such as geography, social sciences, and rural development since the early 2001s. There is no complete agreement among thinkers on the definition of rural tourism. Researchers from different countries have developed their definitions based on their country's unique experiences or backgrounds. The concept of rural tourism includes any type of leisure and leisure activity that is associated with receiving services such as food, accommodation, and local products from local residents and takes place in a place that is in accordance with current laws and regulations of the country or in terms of nature.
Methodology
The present study, which was conducted to identify and analyze the consequences of tourism development in rural areas of Esco, in terms of the degree and degree of control of variables, non-experimental and descriptive, in terms of data collection, field and in terms of generalizability, It was a survey. The statistical population of this study consisted of 550 villagers living in Aq Gonbad village. According to the Karajsi-Morgan table, 225 of them had to be selected by random sampling to conduct research to increase the confidence of the number. 240 people were considered. The data required for this analysis were of the primary data type, which was collected using a questionnaire tool. This researcher-made questionnaire had three sections: individual and professional characteristics (4 variables), positive consequences of the development of tourism activities (22 variables), and negative consequences of the development of tourism activities (21 variables), which were in the form of a spectrum. Five-level (from very low to very high) levels were measured. Based on the conceptual research model, 22 variables related to positive outcomes, and 21 variables related to the negative consequences of tourism activity development as described in Table (1), each was assigned to each of the four factors mentioned in the research conceptual model. In order to estimate the validity of the structure of the questionnaire, factor analysis was used. For this purpose, the following steps were taken: 1) Carrying out exploratory factor analysis in order to determine the basic factors, 2) Deciding on the number of required factors. To explain the observed variables, 3) to rotate the factors and omit the variables that have a weak relationship with the extracted factors or introduce more than one factor, and 4) to perform a confirmatory factor analysis of the remaining variables to confirm the theoretical structure of the tool. Research and its goodness with the observed data Cronbach's alpha were also used to determine the reliability and internal consistency of the research instruments, the values of which were obtained for the main sections of the questionnaire as described in Table (1). The calculated coefficients are higher than 0.7 and acceptable. Data analysis was performed using SPSS23 and LISREL8.5 software, and the statistical methods used included exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. However, in this study, according to the purpose, only the measurement model was calculated and it was determined by how the latent variables are measured according to the visible variables, for which the operating load of each indicator on The structure was estimated (above 0.5 is acceptable) and its significance was investigated using t-value.
Discussion and conclusion
Based on the findings of the study, it was found that most of the respondents (86.7%) were men and the rest (ie 13.3%) were women. Their average age was 29.5 years and their standard deviation was 9.66. In addition, the expected age was 21 and 70 years, respectively. In terms of academic status, descriptive results showed that 40% of respondents had a bachelor's degree and 26.7% had a bachelor's degree or higher, and only 33.3% had lower education than a bachelor's degree. As mentioned above, in order to classify and identify the underlying factors and to exclude variables that have a weak relationship with the extracted factors, it is also necessary to determine the amount of variance explained by each of the variables in the form of categorized factors. Exploratory factor analysis was used. In order to determine the appropriateness of the data related to the set of analyzed variables regarding the positive consequences of rural tourism development, Bartlett test and KMO index were used. The significance of the Bartlett test at a 99% confidence level and the appropriate value of KMO indicated the correlation and appropriateness of the variables to perform factor analysis. The extracted factors of the analyzed set, along with the specific value, percentage of variance, and the percentage of cumulative variance are presented in Table (3). As can be seen from the results, these four factors accounted for a total of 67.99% of the total variance, which indicates the appropriate variance rate explained by the extracted factors. Meanwhile, the first factor, the "economic factor," alone explained the 22.74 percent variance of the entire analyzed set. Then, respectively, the "infrastructure" factors of 20/33; the "social" and the "cultural-educational" accounted for 8.37 percent, respectively. The position of the set of variables related to the positive consequences of the development of rural tourism activities, according to the extracted factors, assuming that the variables with a factor load greater than 0.5 after the rotation of the factors by the Vermox method, is presented in Table (2). In addition, one variable was removed from the analysis after the factor rotation, two variables due to the low factor load.
Keywords: Rural Tourism, Consequences of Tourism, Rural Development, Aq Gonbad Village.
Full-Text [PDF 974 kb]   (31 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2020/06/14 | Accepted: 2020/11/10 | Published: 2022/03/6
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Shokati Amghani M, Ghasemi J, Savari M, Rahimi A. Investigation of the Consequences of Rural Tourism Development in Osko County (Case study: Aq Gonbad Village). جغرافیایی. 2022; 22 (79) :43-65
URL: http://geographical-space.iau-ahar.ac.ir/article-1-3682-en.html


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