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:: Volume 22, Issue 79 (12-2022) ::
جغرافیایی 2022, 22(79): 197-210 Back to browse issues page
Evaluation and prioritization of urban areas in terms of water-sensitive city indicators (Case study: Zahedan city areas)
Parvin Yousefi1, Mohammad Reza Poodineh *2, Mohammad Eskandari Sani3
1- PhD student in geography and urban planning, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan branch, Zahedan, Iran
2- Department of Climatology, Faculty of Geography and Environmental Planning, University of Sistan and Baluchistan, Zahedan, Iran. (Author).
3- Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Birjand University, Birjand, Iran
Abstract:   (266 Views)
Introduction The concept of water-sensitive cities is linked to the new pattern of urban water governance and support for the use of decentralized water systems. Zahedan, the capital of Sistan and Baluchestan province, with its hot and dry climate, is witnessing the arrival of immigrants from rural areas of the province and other provinces, as well as the lack of employment infrastructure and the existence of numerous suburban centers, causing overcrowding. It has been located in different parts of the city and during the last two decades, there have been several problems in the field of urban water supply in this city, such as lack of supply resources on the one hand and increasing per capita consumption and very high migration rate on the other hand. On the one hand, the influx of villagers and the formation of the city in recent decades, and on the other hand, the migration of Afghan citizens to this city, has caused the city of Zahedan to suddenly receive a large population. Therefore, the increasing population growth and inadequate economic facilities have led to the formation of informal settlements in this city. Zahedan has about 1.3 percent of the population and urban space of informal housing and suburban population, which is equivalent to 42% of the total population of the city. These issues indicate that the city of Zahedan is facing a severe shortage of water resources. The city of Zahedan has also faced an uncontrolled expansion in recent decades, and since the supply of drinking water to the citizens of this city is one of the most acute problems of the city, scientific study in this regard will be very important. Therefore, in this research, the areas of Zahedan city in terms of water sensitive indicators have been evaluated and prioritized. Methodology The method of the present research is descriptive-analytical based on the library method (documentary method) and field method using the distribution of questionnaires and conducting interviews to collect information. The statistical population of the study consists of citizens of Zahedan (587730 people) who were selected using Cochran's formula of 350 people and the research questionnaire was distributed and completed in a simple random method according to the population of each region. Then, SPSS software and one-sample t-test were used to analyze the collected data. Also, by designing a questionnaire using fuzzy hierarchical analysis (FAHP) technique, 25 professors and students of geography, experts and officials in relation to the characteristics of water-sensitive city (water-sensitive governance, social capital, justice and equality) Productivity and efficiency, adaptive infrastructure, ecological health, urban space quality, water cycle management, increasing and strengthening water storage and minimizing sedimentation) were identified in the areas of Zahedan. In order to determine the level of each area in the indicators of water sensitive city, the Fuzzy Topsis model has been used. Arc Gis software has been used to draw the maps. Discussion and Results A one-sample t-test was used to evaluate the status of water-sensitive city indicators in Zahedan. In general, the indicators of water-sensitive city in Zahedan city with an average of 2.843 have been evaluated in an unfavorable situation. In order to prioritize the areas of Zahedan city in terms of water sensitive city indicators, the Fuzzy Hierarchical Analysis (FAHP) technique has been used. In this part of the research, the areas of Zahedan city are ranked in terms of water sensitive city indicators using fuzzy TOPSIS model. Also, fuzzy hierarchical analysis technique has been used to weight the indicators. The results show that region 1 with a weight of 0.851 is in the first place. Zone 4 with a weight of 0.096 is in the fifth and last rank. Also, Zone 2 with a weight of 0.705, Zone 5 with a weight of 0.647 and Zone 3 with a weight of 0.282 are in the second to fourth ranks in terms of water sensitive city indicators, respectively. In the city of Zahedan, every year a large amount of natural water resources in the form of rain leaves the city as quickly as possible and discharges in combination with sewage. Due to the large volume of sewage and runoff and the lack of capacity of the collection system of Zahedan city, this system causes overflow and flooding of passages, which causes damages such as damage to infrastructure facilities, residential houses, as well as power outages, traffic disruptions. Unfavorable views in the city and even electrocution of residents due to the flooding of the city's electrical facilities. Conclusion A one-sample t-test was used to evaluate the status of water-sensitive city indicators in Zahedan. In general, the indicators of water sensitive city in Zahedan city with an average of 2.843 have been evaluated in an unfavorable situation. The general results of the article on the prioritization of the five regions of Zahedan city, in terms of water-sensitive city indicators, show that region 1 with a weight of 0.851 is in the first place. Zone 4 with a weight of 0.096 is in the fifth and last rank. Also, region 2 with a weight of 0.705, region 5 with a weight of 0.647 and region 3 with a weight of 0.282 are in the second to fourth ranks in terms of water sensitive city indicators, respectively. This research is conducted for the first time in the city of Zahedan with the present subject. These factors have caused the city to no longer be able to continue its urban life using the available resources.The city of Zahedan has faced an uncontrolled expansion in the past few years, and since the supply of drinking water to the citizens of Zahedan is one of the most acute problems of the city, scientific study in this regard will be very important. In order to prevent the increase of drinking water consumption in the country, especially in cities such as Zahedan, where the amount of water consumption is higher than the national average,appropriate strategies and policies should be taken to bring this amount closer to the global average.
Keywords: Prioritization, water sensitive city, fuzzy TOPSIS, Zahedan city
Full-Text [PDF 870 kb]   (49 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2022/02/11 | Accepted: 2022/05/8 | Published: 2022/12/1
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Yousefi P, Poodineh M R, Eskandari Sani M. Evaluation and prioritization of urban areas in terms of water-sensitive city indicators (Case study: Zahedan city areas). جغرافیایی 2022; 22 (79) :197-210
URL: http://geographical-space.iau-ahar.ac.ir/article-1-3959-en.html


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